Before We Are Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects, 1st SAE

Author: Moore
Edition: 1st SAE
ISBN: 9788131244708
Language: English
Published: 2016
Publisher: Elsevier, India

As the study of embryology continues to be integrated with a range of disciplines, this textbook remains the ideal solution for students who need to quickly learn the basics.

Before We Are Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects,

 1st SAE


As the study of embryology continues to be integrated with a range of disciplines, this textbook remains the ideal solution for students who need to quickly learn the basics. Fully updated by the world’s foremost embryologists, Before We Are Born provides concise guidance on human embryology at every stage of development, using rich illustrations and photographs designed to further explain content.

Key Features

  • Quickly review just the embryology information you need to know, masterfully distilled from the popular book The Developing Human, written by the same author team.
  • Understand the complex concepts inherent in embryology with help from streamlined content, didactic illustrations, and clinical photos.
  • Test your knowledge with brand-new review questions at the end of each chapter.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Human Development Importance of and Advances in Embryology
Descriptive Terms
Clinically Oriented Questions
2 Human Reproduction
Reproductive Organs
Female Reproductive Organs
Male Reproductive Organs
Comparison of Male and Female Gametes
Female Reproductive Cycles
Ovarian Cycle
Menstrual Cycle
Transportation of Gametes
Oocyte Transport
Sperm Transport
Maturation of Sperms
Viability of Oocytes and Sperms
Clinically Oriented Questions
3 First Week of Human Development
Phases of Fertilization
Results of Fertilization
Cleavage of Zygote
Formation of Blastocyst
Clinically Oriented Questions
4 Second Week of Human Development
Formation of Amniotic Cavity, Embryonic Disc, and Umbilical Vesicle
Development of Chorionic Sac
Implantation Sites of Blastocysts
Clinically Oriented Questions
Third Week of Human Development
Gastrulation: Formation of Germ
Primitive Streak
Notochordal Process and Notochord
Neurulation: Formation of the Neural
Neural Plate and Neural Tube
Neural Crest Formation
Development of Somites
Development of Intraembryonic Coelom
Early Development of Cardiovascular System
Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis
Development of Chorionic Villi
Clinically Oriented Questions
6 Fourth to Eighth Weeks of Human Development
Folding of Embryo
Head and Tail Folds
Lateral Folds
Germ Layer Derivatives
Control of Embryonic Development
Estimation of Embryonic Age
Highlights of the Fourth to Eighth Weeks
Fourth Week
Fifth Week
Sixth Week
Seventh Week
Eighth Week
Clinically Oriented Questions
7 Fetal Period: The Ninth Week to Birth
Highlights of Fetal Period
Nine to Twelve Weeks
Thirteen to Sixteen Weeks
Seventeen to Twenty Weeks
Twenty-One to Twenty-Five Weeks
Twenty-Six to Twenty-Nine Weeks
Thirty to Thirty-Eight Weeks
Expected Date of Delivery
Factors Infl uencing Fetal Growth
Procedures for Assessing Fetal Status
Diagnostic Amniocentesis
Chorionic Villus Sampling
Cell Cultures
Percutaneous Umbilical Cord Blood Sampling
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Fetal Monitoring
Alpha-Fetoprotein Assay
Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis
Neonatal Period
Clinically Oriented Questions
8 Placenta and Fetal Membranes
Development of Placenta
Fetomaternal Junction
Intervillous Space
Amniochorionic Membrane
Placental Circulation
Stages of Labor
Placenta and Fetal Membranes after Birth
Umbilical Cord
Amnion and Amniotic Fluid
Signifi cance of Amniotic Fluid
Umbilical Vesicle
Signifi cance of Umbilical Vesicle
Multiple Pregnancies
Twins and Fetal Membranes
Other Types of Multiple Births
Clinically Oriented Questions
9 Body Cavities, Mesenteries, and Diaphragm
Embryonic Body Cavity
Division of Embryonic Body Cavity
Development of Diaphragm
Septum Transversum
Pleuroperitoneal Membranes
Dorsal Mesentery of Esophagus
Muscular Ingrowth from Lateral Body Walls
Positional Changes and Innervation of the Diaphragm
Clinically Oriented Questions
10 Pharyngeal Apparatus, Face, and Neck
Pharyngeal Arches
Pharyngeal Arch Components
Pharyngeal Pouches
Derivatives of Pharyngeal Pouches
Pharyngeal Grooves
Pharyngeal Membranes
Development of Thyroid Gland
Development of Tongue
Lingual Papillae and Taste Buds
Nerve Supply of Tongue
Development of Salivary Glands
Development of Face
Development of Nasal Cavities
Paranasal Sinuses
Development of Palate
Primary Palate
Secondary Palate
Clinically Oriented Questions
11 Respiratory System
Development of Larynx
Development of Trachea
Development of Bronchi and Lungs
Maturation of Lungs
Clinically Oriented Questions
12 Alimentary System
Development of Esophagus
Development of Stomach
Development of Duodenum
Development of Liver and Biliary Apparatus
Development of Pancreas
Development of Spleen
Rotation of Midgut Loop
Cecum and Appendix
Anal Canal
Clinically Oriented Questions
13 Urogenital System
Development of Urinary System
Development of Kidneys and Ureters
Positional Changes of Kidneys
Changes in Blood Supply of Kidneys
Development of Urinary Bladder
Development of Urethra
Development of Suprarenal Glands
Development of Genital System
Development of Gonads
Development of Genital Ducts
Development of External Genitalia
Development of Inguinal Canals
Relocation of Testes and Ovaries
Descent of Testes
Descent of Ovaries
Clinically Oriented Questions
14 Cardiovascular System
Early Development of Heart and Blood Vessels
Development of Veins Associated with Embryonic Heart
Pharyngeal Arch Arteries and Other Branches of the Dorsal Aorta
Fate of Vitelline and Umbilical Arteries
Later Development of Heart
Circulation through Primordial Heart
Partitioning of Primordial Heart
Changes in Sinus Venosus
Primordial Pulmonary Vein and Formation of Left Atrium
Partitioning of Primordial Ventricle
Partitioning of Bulbus Cordis and Truncus Arteriosus
Development of Cardiac Valves
Conducting System of Heart
Birth Defects of Heart and Great Vessels
Derivatives of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries Derivatives of First Pair of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
Derivatives of Second Pair of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
Derivatives of Third Pair of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
Derivatives of Fourth Pair of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
Fate of Fifth Pair of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
Derivatives of Sixth Pair of Pharyngeal Arch Arteries
Pharyngeal Arch Arterial Birth Defects
Fetal and Neonatal Circulation
Fetal Circulation
Transitional Neonatal Circulation
Derivatives of Fetal Vessels and Structures
Development of the Lymphatic System
Development of Lymph Nodes
Development of Spleen and Tonsils
Clinically Oriented Questions
15 Musculoskeletal System
Skeletal System
Development of Cartilage and Bone
Histogenesis of Cartilage
Histogenesis of Bone
Development of Joints
Fibrous Joints
Cartilaginous Joints
Synovial Joints
Development of Axial Skeleton
Development of Vertebral Column
Cartilaginous Stage of Vertebral Development
Bony Stage of Vertebral Development
Development of Ribs
Development of Sternum
Development of Cranium
Development of Appendicular Skeleton
Muscular System
Development of Skeletal Muscle
Development of Smooth Muscle
Development of Cardiac Muscle
Development of Limbs
Early Stages of Limb Development
Final Stages of Limb Development
Cutaneous Innervation of Limbs
Blood Supply of Limbs
Clinically Oriented Questions
16 Nervous System
Development of Nervous System
Development of Spinal Cord
Development of Spinal Ganglia
Development of Spinal Meninges
Positional Changes of Spinal Cord
Myelination of Nerve Fibers
Birth Defects of Spinal Cord
Development of Brain
Brain Flexures
Choroid Plexuses and Cerebrospinal Fluid
Congenital Anomalies of Brain
Development of Peripheral Nervous System
Spinal Nerves
Cranial Nerves
Development of Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Clinically Oriented Questions
17 Development of Eyes and Ears
Development of Eyes and Related Structures
Development of Retina
Development of Choroid and Sclera
Development of Ciliary Body
Development of Iris
Development of Lens
Development of Aqueous Chambers
Development of Cornea
Development of Eyelids
Development of Lacrimal Glands
Development of Ears
Development of Internal Ears
Development of Middle Ears
Development of External Ears
Clinically Oriented Questions 289
18 Integumentary System
Development of Skin and Appendages
Development of Glands
Development of Hairs
Development of Nails
Development of Mammary Glands
Development of Teeth
Bud Stage of Tooth Development
Cap Stage of Tooth Development
Bell Stage of Tooth Development
Tooth Eruption
Clinically Oriented Questions
19 Human Birth Defects
Teratology: Study of Abnormal Development
Birth Defects Caused by Genetic Factors
Numerical Chromosomal Abnormalities
Structural Chromosomal Abnormalities
Birth Defects Caused by Mutant Genes
Birth Defects Caused by Environmental Factors
Principles of Teratogenesis
Human Teratogens
Environmental Chemicals as Teratogens
Infectious Agents as Teratogens
Radiation as a Teratogen
Maternal Factors as Teratogens
Mechanical Factors as Teratogens
Birth Defects Caused by Multifactorial Inheritance
Clinically Oriented Questions
20 The Cellular and Molecular Basis of Development
Intercellular Communication
Gap Junctions
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Retinoic Acid
Transforming Growth Factor-ß/Bone Morphogenetic Protein
Sonic Hedgehog
Wnt/ß-Catenin Pathway
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases 325
Common Features
Regulation of Angiogenesis by Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
Notch-Delta Pathway
Transcription Factors
Hox/Homeobox Proteins
Pax Genes
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
DNA Methylation
Histone Modifications
Stem Cells: Differentiation versus Pluripotency Summary of Common Signaling Pathways Used during Development Bibliography and Suggested Reading Answers to Clinically Oriented Questions Index