Grays Anatomy for Students: 1st SAE

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Author: Veeramani
Edition: 1st SAE
ISBN: 9788131248676
Language: English
Published: 2017
Publisher: Elsevier, India

The First South Asian adaptation builds on the past and looks to the future. The language has been simplified to aid students who have studied in the vernacular. The original illustrations have been retained and few illustrations have been added. There are more figure numbers mentioned in the text to encourage students to refer to the illustrations while learning.........

Grays Anatomy for Students: 1st SAE

About

The First South Asian adaptation builds on the past and looks to the future. The language has been simplified to aid students who have studied in the vernacular. The original illustrations have been retained and few illustrations have been added. There are more figure numbers mentioned in the text to encourage students to refer to the illustrations while learning. The text has been made more students friendly by adding generalizations, classifications and summaries. There are useful review materials at the beginning of the chapters which include digital resources for self-study. There are updates on imaging techniques to encourage students to appreciate the importance of an essential knowledge of the relevant anatomy to interpret images. Several illustrations and flowcharts have been added in order to simplify the anatomy of the cranial nerves. This new edition includes innovative features such as set inductions, outlines for subchapters and Flowcharts to facilitate learning. Set inductions are mostly clinical scenarios to create interest and emphasize the need to study anatomy for healthcare professions. The outlines are a modern multimodal facilitating approach to various topics. They empower students to be focussed and self-directed while they explore the content. They include learning objectives and materials for review.

Key Features

  • Adapted from the most recent 3rd edition.
  • Completely revised to continue its focus on just the information you need for your anatomy courses
    easy-to-read
    visually appealing format that facilitates study
    Set Inductions and Outlines available
  • Stay current and engaged in your anatomy courses with many new “Early Clinical Exposure” boxes.
  • Source your review material quickly and easily with of addition list of additional relevant study aids at the beginning of each chapter.
  • Improve your comprehension of cranial nerves with additional illustrations.

Table of Contents

1 The body
What is anatomy? 2
THE BODY—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 3
How can gross anatomy be studied? 4
Important anatomical terms 4
Imaging 7
Diagnostic imaging techniques 7
Nuclear medicine imaging 10
Image interpretation 12
Plain radiography 12
Computed tomography 12
Magnetic resonance imaging 13
Nuclear medicine imaging 13
Safety in imaging 13
Body systems 14
Skeletal system 14
Cartilage 14
Bone 14
Joints 20
Skin and fascias 27
Skin 27
Fascia 27
Muscular system 28
Cardiovascular system 30
Lymphatic system 32
Lymphatic vessels 32
Lymph nodes 33
Lymphatic trunks and ducts 33
Nervous system 34
Central nervous system 34
Functional subdivisions of the CNS 35
Somatic part of the nervous system 36
Visceral part of the nervous system 41
Other systems 51
Clinical cases 53
2 Back
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW AND SKELETAL
FRAMEWORK—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 57
Conceptual overview 58
General description 58 xiii
Functions 59
Support 59
Movement 59
Protection of the nervous system 60
Component parts 61
Bones 61
Muscles 62
Vertebral canal 64
Spinal nerves 65
Relationship to other regions 66
Head 66
Thorax, abdomen, and pelvis 67
Limbs 67
Key features 67
Long vertebral column and short spinal cord 67
Intervertebral foramina and spinal nerves 69
Innervation of the back 69
Regional anatomy 70
Skeletal framework 70
Vertebrae 70
Intervertebral foramina 80
Posterior spaces between vertebral arches 80
Joints 84
Joints between vertebrae in the back 84
Ligaments 88
Anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments 88
Ligamenta fl ava 88
Supraspinous ligament and ligamentum nuchae 89
Interspinous ligaments 90
BACK MUSCLES—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 93
Back musculature 94
Superfi cial group of back muscles 94
Intermediate group of back muscles 100
Deep group of back muscles 102
Suboccipital muscles 108
SPINAL CORD, MENINGES, AND SPINAL
NERVES—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 109
Spinal cord 110
Vasculature 111
Meninges 114
Arrangement of structures in the vertebral canal 115
Spinal nerves 117
Surface anatomy 122
Back surface anatomy 122
Absence of lateral curvatures 122
Primary and secondary curvatures in the sagittal
plane 123
Useful nonvertebral skeletal landmarks 123
How to identify specifi c vertebral spinous
processes 125
Visualizing the inferior ends of the spinal cord
and subarachnoid space 126
Identifying major muscles 127
Clinical cases 129
3 Thorax
Conceptual overview 135
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW AND PECTORAL
REGION—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 135
General description 136
Functions 137
Breathing 137
Protection of vital organs 137
Conduit 137
Component parts 137
Thoracic wall 137
Superior thoracic aperture 139
Inferior thoracic aperture 139
Diaphragm 140
Mediastinum 141
Pleural cavities 141
Relationship to other regions 143
Neck 143
Upper limb 143
Abdomen 143
Breast 144
Key features 145
Vertebral level TIV/V 145
Venous shunts from left to right 145
Segmental neurovascular supply of thoracic
wall 147
Sympathetic system 149
Flexible wall and inferior thoracic aperture 149
Innervation of the diaphragm 151
Regional anatomy 152
Pectoral region 152
Breast 152
Muscles of the pectoral region 155
Thoracic wall 157
THORACIC WALL AND DIAPHRAGM—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 157
Skeletal framework 158
Intercostal spaces 165
Diaphragm 176
Arterial supply 177
Venous drainage 177
Innervation 177
Movements of the thoracic wall and diaphragm
during breathing 177
PLEURA AND LUNGS—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 179
Pleural cavities 180
Pleura 180
Lungs 184
Mediastinum 197
Middle mediastinum 198
PERICARDIUM AND EXTERNAL FEATURES OF THE
HEART—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 199
CARDIAC CHAMBERS AND INTERIOR OF THE
HEART—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 209
CORONARY VASCULATURE—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 220
SUPERIOR MEDIASTINUM—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 235
Superior mediastinum 236
ANTERIOR MEDIASTINUM, POSTERIOR
MEDIASTINUM, AND SURFACE ANATOMY—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 247
Posterior mediastinum 248
Anterior mediastinum 256
Surface anatomy 257
Thorax surface anatomy 257
How to count ribs 257
Surface anatomy of the breast in women 258
Visualizing structures at the TIV/V vertebral level 258
Visualizing structures in the superior
mediastinum 260
Visualizing the margins of the heart 261
Where to listen for heart sounds 262
Visualizing the pleural cavities and lungs,
pleural recesses, and lung lobes and fi ssures 262
Where to listen for lung sounds 263
Clinical cases 266
4 Abdomen
Conceptual overview 279
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW, ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL
WALL, AND RECTUS SHEATH—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 279
General description 280
Functions 281
Houses and protects major viscera 281
Breathing 283
Changes in intraabdominal pressure 283
Component parts 284
Wall 284
Abdominal cavity 285
Inferior thoracic aperture 287
Diaphragm 287
Pelvic inlet 288
Relationship to other regions 288
Thorax 288
Pelvis 288
Lower limb 289
Key features 290
Arrangement of abdominal viscera in the adult 290
Skin and muscles of the anterior and lateral
abdominal wall and thoracic intercostal
nerves 293
The groin is a weak area in the anterior
abdominal wall 294
Vertebral level LI 296
The gastrointestinal system and its derivatives
are supplied by three major arteries 296
Venous shunts from left to right 298
All venous drainage from the gastrointestinal
system passes through the liver 299
Abdominal viscera are supplied by a large
prevertebral plexus 301
Regional anatomy 302
Surface topography 302
Four-quadrant pattern 302
Nine-region pattern 303
Abdominal wall 305
Superfi cial fascia 305
Anterolateral muscles 307
Extraperitoneal fascia 313
Peritoneum 313
Innervation 314
Arterial supply and venous drainage 316
Lymphatic drainage 317
Groin 318
INGUINAL REGION—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 318
Inguinal canal 320
Inguinal hernias 325
Abdominal viscera 330
Peritoneum 330
PERITONEUM—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 330
Peritoneal cavity 331
Organs 339
ABDOMINAL ESOPHAGUS AND
STOMACH—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 339
SMALL INTESTINE—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 345
LARGE INTESTINE—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 352
LIVER AND GALL BLADDER—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 363
PANCREAS AND SPLEEN—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 368
VESSELS AND NERVES OF THE
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 374
Arterial supply 380
Venous drainage 393
Lymphatics 397
Innervation 397
Posterior abdominal region 405
POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL REGION 1,
AND DIAPHRAGM—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 405
Posterior abdominal wall 407
Viscera 414
KIDNEY, URETER, AND SUPRARENAL
GLANDS—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 414
Vasculature 429
POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL REGION 2 AND
SURFACE ANATOMY—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 429
Lymphatic system 435
Nervous system in the posterior abdominal region 437
Sympathetic trunks and splanchnic nerves 437
Surface anatomy 445
Abdomen surface anatomy 445
Defi ning the surface projection of the abdomen 445
How to fi nd the superfi cial inguinal ring 446
How to determine lumbar vertebral levels 447
Visualizing structures at the LI vertebral level 448
Visualizing the position of major blood vessels 449
Using abdominal quadrants to locate major viscera 450
Defi ning surface regions to which pain from the gut
is referred 451
Where to fi nd the kidneys 452
Where to fi nd the spleen 452
Clinical cases 453
5 Pelvis and perineum
Conceptual overview 467
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW AND PELVIC REGION 1
(MALE)—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 467
General description 468
Functions 468
Contain and support bladder, rectum, anal canal, and
reproductive tracts 468
Anchors the roots of the external genitalia 470
Component parts 471
Pelvic inlet 471
Pelvic walls 471
Pelvic outlet 473
Pelvic fl oor 474
Pelvic cavity 474
Perineum 475
Relationship to other regions 477
Abdomen 477
Lower limb 478
Key features 479
The pelvic cavity projects posteriorly 479
Important structures cross the ureters in the pelvic
cavity 480
The prostate in men and the uterus in women
are anterior to the rectum 481
The perineum is innervated by sacral spinal
cord segments 481
Nerves are related to bone 482
Parasympathetic innervation from spinal cord
levels S2 to S4 controls erection 483
Muscles and fascia of the pelvic fl oor and perineum
intersect at the perineal body 484
The course of the urethra is different in men
and women 485
Regional anatomy 486
Pelvis 486
Bones 486
Joints 491
Orientation 493
Differences between men and women 493
True pelvis 495
Viscera 506
PELVIS REGION 2 (FEMALE)—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 523
Fascia 530
Peritoneum 530
Nerves 535
Blood vessels 545
Lymphatics 551
Perineum 552
PERINEUM—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 552
Borders and ceiling 553
Ischio-anal fossae and their anterior recesses 555
Anal triangle 555
Urogenital triangle 557
Somatic nerves 564
Visceral nerves 566
6 Lower limb
Conceptual overview 587
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW AND INTRODUCTION—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 587
General introduction 588
Function 590
Support the body weight 590
Locomotion 590
Component parts 592
Bones and joints 592
Muscles 596
Relationship to other regions 598
Abdomen 598
Pelvis 598
Perineum 598
Key points 598
Innervation is by lumbar and sacral spinal
nerves 598
Nerves related to bone 603
Superfi cial veins 603
Regional anatomy 604
Bony pelvis 604
Proximal femur 607
Hip joint 611
Gateways to the lower limb 615
Nerves 616
Arteries 619
Veins 621
Lymphatics 623
Blood vessels 567
Veins 567
Lymphatics 570
Surface anatomy 571
Surface anatomy of the pelvis
and perineum 571
Orientation of the pelvis and perineum
in the anatomical position 571
How to defi ne the margins
of the perineum 571
Identifi cation of structures in the anal
triangle 573
Identifi cation of structures in the urogenital
triangle of women 574
Identifi cation of structures in the urogenital
triangle of men 575
Clinical cases 578
Deep fascia and the saphenous opening 624
Femoral triangle 625
Gluteal region 627
GLUTEAL REGION—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 627
Muscles 628
Nerves 633
Arteries 635
Veins 636
Lymphatics 636
Thigh 637
THIGH—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 637
Bones 639
Muscles 643
Arteries 654
Veins 657
Nerves 657
Knee joint 664
Tibiofi bular joint 673
Popliteal fossa 673
Leg 675
LEG—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 675
Bones 677
Joints 678
Posterior compartment of leg 679
Lateral compartment of leg 686
Anterior compartment of leg 688
Foot 691
FOOT—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 691
Bones 693
Joints 697
Tarsal tunnel, retinacula, and arrangement of major
structures at the ankle 705
Arches of the foot 706
Plantar aponeurosis 708
Fibrous sheaths of toes 708
Extensor hoods 708
Intrinsic muscles 709
Arteries 715
Veins 718
Nerves 718
Surface anatomy 722
Lower limb surface anatomy 722
Avoiding the sciatic nerve 722
Finding the femoral artery in the femoral
triangle 723
Identifying structures around the knee 723
Visualizing the contents of the popliteal fossa 725
Finding the tarsal tunnel—the gateway to the foot 726
Identifying tendons around the ankle and in the
foot 727
Finding the dorsalis pedis artery 728
Approximating the position of the plantar arterial
arch 728
Major superfi cial veins 729
Pulse points 730
Clinical cases 731
7 Upper limb
Conceptual overview 743
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW AND SHOULDER
REGION—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 743
General description 744
Functions 745
Positioning the hand 745
The hand as a mechanical tool 748
The hand as a sensory tool 748
Component parts 749
Bones and joints 749
Muscles 751
Relationship to other regions 752
Neck 752
Back and thoracic wall 753
Key points 754
Innervation by cervical and upper thoracic nerves 754
Nerves related to bone 758
Superfi cial veins 759
Orientation of the thumb 760
Regional anatomy 761
Shoulder 761
Bones 761
Joints 764
Muscles 772
Posterior scapular region 776
Muscles 777
Gateways to the posterior scapular region 777
Nerves 779
Arteries and veins 779
Axilla 781
AXILLA—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 782
Axillary inlet 785
Anterior wall 785
Medial wall 788
Lateral wall 790
Posterior wall 791
Gateways in the posterior wall 793
Floor 794
Contents of the axilla 794
Arm 813
ARM AND CUBITAL FOSSA—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 813
Bones 815
Muscles 818
Arteries and veins 820
Nerves 825
Elbow joint 829
Cubital fossa 836
Forearm 839
Bones 841
Joints 842
Anterior compartment of the forearm 844
ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 845
Muscles 846
Arteries and veins 851
Nerves 853
Posterior compartment of the forearm 857
POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT OF FOREARM—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 857
Muscles 858
Arteries and veins 864
Nerves 865
Hand 865
THE HAND—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 866
Bones 867
Joints 870
Carpal tunnel and structures at the wrist 873
Palmar aponeurosis 875
Palmaris brevis 875
Anatomical snuffbox 875
Fibrous digital sheaths 876
Extensor hoods 877
Muscles 879
Arteries and veins 885
Nerves 889
Surface anatomy 895
Upper limb surface anatomy 895
Bony landmarks and muscles of the posterior scapular
region 895
Visualizing the axilla and locating contents and
related structures 896
Locating the brachial artery in the arm 897
The triceps brachii tendon and position of the radial
nerve 898
Cubital fossa (anterior view) 898
Identifying tendons and locating major vessels
and nerves in the distal forearm 900
Normal appearance of the hand 901
Position of the fl exor retinaculum and the recurrent
branch of the median nerve 902
Motor function of the median and ulnar nerves
in the hand 902
Visualizing the positions of the superfi cial and deep
palmar arches 903
Pulse points 903
Clinical cases 905
8 Head and neck
Conceptual overview 912
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW AND CRANIAL
CAVITY—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 912
General description 913
Head 913
Neck 914
Functions 916
Protection 916
Contains upper parts of respiratory and digestive
tracts 916
Communication 916
Positioning the head 916
Connects the upper and lower respiratory
and digestive tracts 916
Component parts 917
Skull 917
Cervical vertebrae 919
Hyoid bone 920
Soft palate 921
Muscles 921
Relationship to other regions 922
Thorax 922
Upper limbs 922
Key features 923
Vertebral levels CIII/IV and CV/VI 923
Airway in the neck 924
Cranial nerves 925
Cervical nerves 926
Functional separation of the digestive
and respiratory passages 926
Triangles of the neck 929
Regional anatomy 930
Skull 930
Anterior view 930
Lateral view 932
Posterior view 934
Superior view 936
Inferior view 936
Cranial cavity 940
Roof 940
xix
Contents
Floor 941
Meninges 949
MENINGES—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 949
Cranial dura mater 950
Arachnoid mater 953
Pia mater 954
Arrangement of meninges and spaces 954
Brain and its blood supply 956
BRAIN AND BLOOD SUPPLY—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 956
Brain 957
Blood supply 958
Venous drainage 964
Cranial nerves 972
CRANIAL NERVE—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 972
Olfactory nerve [I] 975
Optic nerve [II] 975
Oculomotor nerve [III] 975
Trochlear nerve [IV] 980
Trigeminal nerve [V] 980
Ophthalmic nerve [V1] 981
Maxillary nerve [V2] 981
Mandibular nerve [V3] 981
Abducent nerve [VI] 985
Facial nerve [VII] 986
Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] 989
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] 990
Vagus nerve [X] 992
Accessory nerve [XI] 995
Hypoglossal nerve [XII] 997
Face 1002
FACE—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1002
Muscles 1003
Parotid gland 1010
Innervation 1013
Vessels 1015
Scalp 1021
SCALP—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1021
Layers 1022
Innervation 1024
Vessels 1025
Lymphatic drainage 1026
Orbit 1028
ORBIT—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1028
Bony orbit 1029
Eyelids 1030
Lacrimal apparatus 1033
Fissures and foramina 1036
Fascial specializations 1037
Muscles 1038
Vessels 1043
Innervation 1044
Eyeball 1049
Ear 1055
EAR—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1055
External ear 1057
Middle ear 1061
Internal ear 1068
Temporal and infratemporal fossae 1075
TEMPORAL AND INFRATEMPORAL FOSSAE—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1075
Bony framework 1077
Temporomandibular joints 1079
Masseter muscle 1081
Temporal fossa 1081
Infratemporal fossa 1085
Pterygopalatine fossa 1098
PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA—
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1098
Skeletal framework 1100
Gateways 1101
Contents 1101
Neck 1108
NECK—ANTERIOR TRIANGLE—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 1108
NECK—POSTERIOR TRIANGLE—LEARNING
OBJECTIVES 1109
NECK—THYROID GLAND AND DEEP
STRUCTURES—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1110
Fascia 1111
Superfi cial venous drainage 1114
Anterior triangle of the neck 1117
Posterior triangle of the neck 1134
Root of the neck 1141
Pharynx 1151
PHARYNX—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1152
Skeletal framework 1153
Pharyngeal wall 1155
Fascia 1157
Gaps in the pharyngeal wall and structures passing
through them 1158
Nasopharynx 1158
Oropharynx 1160
Laryngopharynx 1160
Tonsils 1160
Vessels 1162
Nerves 1164
Larynx 1165
LARYNX—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1165
Laryngeal cartilages 1167
Extrinsic ligaments 1170
xx
Contents
Intrinsic ligaments 1171
Laryngeal joints 1172
Cavity of the larynx 1173
Intrinsic muscles 1175
Function of the larynx 1178
Vessels 1180
Nerves 1182
Nasal cavities 1184
NASAL CAVITIES—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1184
Lateral wall 1185
Regions 1187
Innervation and blood supply 1188
Skeletal framework 1188
External nose 1190
Paranasal sinuses 1190
Walls, fl oor, and roof 1192
Nares 1196
Choanae 1197
Gateways 1198
Vessels 1198
Innervation 1201
Oral cavity 1203
ORAL CAVITY—LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1203
Multiple nerves innervate the oral cavity 1205
Skeletal framework 1205
Walls: the cheeks 1208
Floor 1209
Tongue 1212
Salivary glands 1219
Roof—palate 1222
Oral fi ssure and lips 1230
Oropharyngeal isthmus 1231
Teeth and gingivae 1231
Surface anatomy 1237
Head and neck surface anatomy 1237
Anatomical position of the head and major
landmarks 1237
Visualizing structures at the CIII/CIV and CVI
vertebral levels 1238
How to outline the anterior and posterior triangles
of the neck 1239
How to locate the cricothyroid ligament 1240
How to fi nd the thyroid gland 1241
Estimating the position of the middle meningeal
artery 1241
Major features of the face 1242
The eye and lacrimal apparatus 1243
External ear 1244
Pulse points 1245
Clinical cases 1246
Index 1253